The Battle and Siege of Megiddo

Transliteration, translation and some notes

iw sn Hr ifd m gbgbyt r mkti m Hrw n(y) snDw
… they fled headlong to Megiddo with faces of fear

Aerial view of Tel Megiddo from southeast Model of Megiddo, 1457 BCE
(Click captions for sources and to enlarge images)


This page is a web version of my online submissions to a project undertaken by the Glyphstudy Translation group. The group decides on an hieroglyphic text and a source. The text chosen for this project was the Battle of Megiddo.

The battle was fought between an Egyptian army commanded by the Pharaoh Thutmose III (Djehutymes, DHwty-ms) and a large group of rebel Canaanite states led by the king of Kadesh, “the vile enemy of Kadesh,” pA xrw Xsy n(y) qdS. The battle and siege of Megiddo took place, according to current scholarly calculations, in 1457 BC.
Thutmose marched some 10,000 to 20,000 infantry and chariots to the city of Megiddo in Israel. The modern site of Tel Megiddo, now a National Park, is pictured above.
Thutmose III’s army was accompanied by a royal scribe, Tjaneni, who recorded the events on a “roll of leather” art n(yw)t dHr (line 94). Upon return to Egypt, the description of the battle was inscribed on the north wall of the second hall behind Pylon No. 6 in Thutmose III's Hall of Annals in the Temple of Amun at Karnak. The description of this battle, consisting of some 108 vertical columns, is the earliest and most reliable of any battle in antiquity. Much of the top and bottom of the inscription has deteriorated over time as has some of the entire inscription. Written in Middle Egyptian, those wishing to read the text must rely on copies made and published by early scholars.

After defeating the rebel forces, the Egyptian troops plundered the enemy dead, while the survivors "fled headlong to Megiddo with faces of fear," where the inhabitants lowered their clothes and pulled them up into the city (lines 86-88). Thutmose barricaded the city and was eventually victorious after a siege of seven or eight months, when the inhabitants surrendered. This victory assured Egyptian dominance of the region.

There are several sources showing the hieroglyphic text as found at Karnak. It was decided to use the one contained in the Urkunden der 18. Dynastie compiled by the German scholar Kurt Heinrich Sethe and published in 1906. A page from the Urkunden is reproduced below and a link given for those who wish to download the entire volume of hieroglyphic text. We covered pages 647 - 667 (lines 1 - 103) for this project.

The working method is to transliterate the text using Manuel de Codage, supply a translation and some notes for clarification and potential discussion. The text chosen is divided up into manageable segments that are submitted fortnightly. A collation is compiled by the moderator and posted on the Glyphstudy Translation group website and members start the next segment.

Although the hieroglyphic text is available from numerous sources (see below), I found it difficult to find a source for the transliterated text against which to check my work. I therefore decided to convert my MdC transliteration to the traditional transliteration and post it by means of this page for students to consult. The source we used was handwritten by Sethe and presents some difficulties which I try to address in the notes. Although I check Egyptian spellings in both the Vygus and Faulkner dictionaries (see Bibliography below), I am sure there are some errors. Since the main purpose of this page is to present the transliteration of the hieroglyphic inscription, a detailed discussion of the military strategy and political aspects of the battle is not intended as these topics are well covered in myriad writings on the subject.

Further, I have not provided an analysis of the grammar in this text except for notes, to myself, to help me remember some key points.
Notes on the text.

As can be seen from the Urkunden page reproduced below, there are some difficulties when working with this text. Sethe reconstructed sections that were deteriorated and used square brackets with hatching to indicate them. It is frequently difficult to read the signs under the hatching. I have attempted to match the line breaks in Sethe and correspondingly in the translation.

Frequently encountered is the abbreviation l.p.h or lph. Written out, this phrase is anx(w) (w)DA(w) s(nbw) and is used after the mention of a member of the royal family. It translates, "may he live, prosper, and be healthy."


On the left is the original inscription from Thutmose III's Hall of Annals at Karnak. It is written in columns that read down and right to left.
On the right is the first page (reduced) of the Sethe transcription, used as the basis for this page.
To orient yourself, look for the cartouche in the third column from the right. This column is Sethe's Line 2.
This example illustrates some of the difficulties encountered when working with Sethe's text, the handwritten hieroglyphs as well as the hatching used to indicate missing or reconstructed text.
For those interested in following along in Sethe, you can download the complete volume here: Sethe Urk-3.pdf
For additional detailed photographs of the original wall, kindly supplied by Mark Vygus, click here.
For a photomontage of lines 1-67, click here.

To see the traditional transliteration characters, you will need to download and install the Trlit_CG Times font.
After installing the font you should see the transliterated Egyptian alphabet below. If you do not install the font, the lines will appear in Manuel de Codage format

A i y a w b p f m n r h H x X z s S k g t T d D

I did not set Egyptian words in the Notes with the traditional transliteration, using instead the Manuel de Codage
or computer-encoding transliteration. This system uses traditional Roman alphabet letters shown below.
I will try to convert these to the traditional transliteration as time and technology allow.

A i y a w b p f m n r h H x X z s S k g t T d D

Line 1 -  Line 10 -  Line 20 -  Line 30 -  Line 40 -  Line 50 -
Line 60 -  Line 70 -  Line 80 -  Line 90 -  Line 100



1. [Horus name] Hr [kA nxt xa-m-wAst]
Under hatched lines is the Sole Ruler version of [Two Ladies] nbty wAH-nsyt-mi-ra-m-pt
Hatching obscures next name but it looks like a variant of the Sole Ruler [Golden Falcon] bik-nbw Dsr-xaw sxm-pHti

Darrell D. Baker in The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs gives two versions of Thutmose’s titulary, one as coregent and one as sole ruler.

2. [Prenomen] nswt bity (nb nn?) [mn-xpr-ra] sA ra
Under hatched lines: [Nomen] DHwty-ms
Under hatched lines: di anx Dt

Translation: “he who belongs to the sedge and the bee”, Menkheperre Son of Ra, Djehutymes (Thutmose), given life forever.

Notes: Brugsch does not have the three signs, nb nn?, following nswt bity.
They are not part of the “usual” form of this title so I assume they weathered away or may be a reconstruction by Sethe.

3. wD Hm.f rdit

Translation: His majesty gave a command, causing to be recorded (Under the hatched lines, from Lichtheim) “the victories his father Amun had given him by an”

rdit - inf give
smn - caus vb - record events
tw - passive suffix

4. wD m Hwt nTr iri n Hm.f n…

Translation: inscription in the temple made by his majesty

Notes: wD - inscription

5. wDyt ib rn.s Hna HAq ini.[n n Hm.f im.s] [bAkw xAswt]

Translation: …campaign, understanding (recording) its name, together with the plunder brought
[by them to his majesty as a tribute of all the foreign lands],

wDyt - campaign, expedition, journey
ib - heart, mind, understanding
HAq - plunder, booty
ini - bring, fetch, carry off Vygus p.2158
im.s - by them
bAkw - tribute
xAswt - hill countries, foreign lands, deserts

6. nbt rdi.n n itf.f ra
22 Abd 4 prt sw 25 [sS? sn? Hm.f xtm n]

Translation: that his father Ra gave him.
Regnal year 22 month 4 of winter day 25 [His majesty passed the fort of]

sS / sn - Faulkner gives “pass” with question mark.
xtm - fort

7. TA? m wDyt tpt? n(y)t nxtw [r dr tkkw]

Translation: Tharu from the first campaign of victory [to drive out the attackers of]

Notes: TA? - Breasted uses Tharu, Lichtheim, Sile. Apparently the exact location is unknown.
I could not find a dictionary entry for the spelling used in Sethe.

wDyt - campaign, expedition, journey
tpt - first
nxtw - victory
dr - drive out, expel

8. tAS kmt m qni [m nxt m wsr m mAa (Aa11? - P8H?)]

Translation: the boundaries of Egypt bravely. [with strength, might, right]

Notes: tAS - boundary, frontier, district, regions
qni - (inf) brave, strong, conquer

9. ist aHaw nw [aA] m rnpwt [??? sn ??? ??? m]

Translation: Now for a duration of many years …

Notes: aHaw - lifetime, duration, time span
nw - time
aA - many, a lot of, great, quite

10. HaDA s nb ib [mk?] r [HAt] [wrw/ nty m Hwt wart]

Translation: robbing every man … [before][ their officials that are from Avaris]

Notes: HaDA - to rob
HAt - before prep
Hwt wart - Avaris

11. xpr.n is m hAw [nb?][Ay?] iwayt ntt im

Translation: It happened, in fact in the time (of other kings (Lichtheim)), the garrison that was there

Notes: iwayt - troops, garrison, battalion

12. m dmi n SrHn sT SAa m yrDA

Translation: was from the town of Sharuhen (in Palestine) beginning from Yerda

Notes: SAa m - beginning from
yrDA - Lichtheim gives Yerdj.
Breasted gives Yeraza (Y-ra-Da) - “That is, from northwestern Judea to beyond the Euphrates.”

13. nfryt r pHww Hrw r bST Hr Hm.f
HAt-sp 23 tpy Smw sw 4 sw 1 n(y) Hb nsw tn xaw

Translation: as far as the marshlands as well as [those] rebelling against his majesty
Regnal year 23, first month of summer, day 4, day 1 of the festival of the King’s appearance in glory

Notes: nfryt r - down to, as far as (spelling unclear)
pHww - marshlands
Hrw r - abbreviation - apart from, besides, as well as
bST - rebel against - glyphs in wrong order!

A difficult sentence that superficially doesn’t make the best sense. Lichtheim doesn’t really try.
Breasted gives: “to the marshes of the earth (they) had begun to revolt against his majesty”.
For a more extended discussion, see Nelson p.4, 4.

14. r dmi n(y) mH n(y) pA HqA gADAtw [rn.f n(y) xArw]

Translation: at the town of “Capture of the Ruler” Gaza, [its name belonging to Khor]
[Regnal year 23,]

Notes: mH - capture
“capture of the ruler” - Breasted says possibly a proper name: verb, relative form + noun, meaning “Which the ruler seized” Lichtheim gives “Conquest-of -the-Ruler [the Syrian name of which is] Gaza”
Budge gives this Sethe spelling from this text as a source in his list of place names.
[rn.f n(y) xArw] - Khor was the name of a region of south of Syria, possibly near modern Lebanon. Therefore Lichtheim’s version works.

15. tpy Smw sw 5 wDi m st Tn
m qnt [m nxt]

Translation: first month of summer, day 5, departure from this place

Notes: wdi - depart inf.

16. m wsr m mAa xrw
r sxrt xrw pf Xsy
r swsx

Translation: in valor, [of strength], of might, of righteousness (justified),
to overthrow that vile enemy, to extend

Notes: mAa xrw - Lichtheim uses “right” Vygus defines as “justified”
sxrt - caus vb inf uses “t” indicating inf. - overthrow.
Xsy - vile, wretched
swsx - widen, extend vb. s-causative

17. tAS kmt
mi wDt.n it.f imn ra wsr nxt

Translation: the boundaries of Egypt, like his father Amun Ra, mighty and victorious, commanded

Notes: nxt - victorious

18. iTi.f
23 tpy Smw sw 16 r dmi n yHm wDt [Hm.f]

Translation: him to conquer.
Regnal year 23, first month of summer, day 16. At the town of Yehem. His majesty commanded

Notes: dmi - town, village

19. nDwt Hna mSa.f n nXt r Dd r n[tt] xrw pf Xsy n qdS iw

Translation: a consultation with his troops of victory, saying, furthermore, that wretched enemy of Kadesh has come and

Notes: nDwt - counsel, consultation (Aa27 not Z11 poorly drawn)
r ntt - in as much as, furthermore, to the effect that

20. aq r mkti sw [im] m At

Translation: entered into Megiddo, and is there

Notes: sw - non-enclitic particle = and so, there

21. (m At)
sHwy.n.f n f srw n(y)w xAswt [nbt ???]

Translation: at this time. He assembled those princes of every foreign land

Notes: nf - two options, n.f to him or nf those

22. Hr mw n kmt Hna SAa r nhrn m

Translation: loyal to Egypt together and (those) from Naharin [? ? ?],

23. xArw qdw mSa.snw [rmTt snw]

Translation: Khorians, men of Kode (Kodians), their horses, their troops and their people

Notes: Faulkner gives rmTt as “often written” for this spelling. Literally it is rT rmt)

24. r ntt sw Hr Dd
aHa.i r [aHA r Hm.f aA]

Translation: that he had said, as someone said, I will wait and will fight against his majesty here

Notes: aHa - to wait
aHA - fight
aA - here

The placement of “r” is confusing here. Lichtheimer uses aha.i r as future, “I shall wait” but “r” of futurity should precede the verb. She applies futurity to both verbs. I may be missing something.

25. m mkti n nsw [ntt m]

Translation: in Megiddo. You say to me (the King) what you want.

Notes: ntt m ib - what you want, what you desire

Most interesting that he asks the advice of his allies. They give a realistic assessment.

26. xft Hm.f
sw mi ix Sm[t Hr m]

Translation: They said to his majesty, Then what will it be like to come and go upon this road

Notes: xft - to - graphic transposition of “t” and “f”
sw - non-enc particle - then
mi ix - how? like what?
Smt - to depart, to return, to go off, to move, to come and go
mTn - road, way

27. m]Tn pn nty wA r Hns
iw tw [Hr smit r]

Translation: which will be in a state of narrowness?

Notes: wA - in a state, threaten
smit - report

28. Dd xrwy im aHa Hr [bnrw]

Translation: It is reported the enemies, which are standing by outside (maybe a better word would be outskirts), they are many.

Notes: xrwy - enemies
bnrw - “outside”, Faulkner

Comment: This scribe, Tjaneni, was a good writer and I can see why Hoch likes him. It often reads like a modern war diary. Much vocabulary to learn, but the meaning and grammar is quite clear and concise. The numerous uses of “r” and other prepositions are difficult at times.

29. Hrw r aSA
is bn Sm ssmt m sA [ssmt] [mSa]

Translation: Indeed, won’t horse go following after horse, soldiers

Notes: Hrw r - apart from, besides, as well as

30. rmT m mitt iniw wnn [t]A HA[t] n.nw

Translation: as well as people. Why should this

Notes: m mitt - likewise, as well as, also
iniw - question particle
wnn -
HAt - vanguard

31. imy Hr aHA iw nA n(y) pHwy aHa aA

Translation: vanguard of ours be fighting while the rear-guard is waiting here

Notes: tA HAt n.n imy - Hoch gives the key to this phrase on page 142 by using it as an example of possession. I was reading the graphic transposition of “t” after “A” and it threw me off as did the entire phrase.
His translation is “this vanguard of ours”! A construction not that often encountered, at least by me.

pHwy - According to Vygus this spelling means end, bottom, hind quarters. The Vygus spelling for rear-guard, which is what is meant here, I think, is F22 - Z7 - Z4 - F51. Amusing?

aA - here

32. m aArwnA n aHA n sn r ntt mTn ([m] [di] [T]n) wAty aA

Translation: in Aruna not fighting for them? Furthermore, behold, there are two roads yonder,

Notes: r ntt - in as much as, furthermore, to the effect that

[m] [di] [T]n - Gardiner discusses this at some length in §234, saying it may be an obsolete imperative meaning “behold”. He gives mTn as the transliteration. There are a number of other possibilities, as in the next line. Highly recommended reading.

aA - here, there, yonder

33. waty n m di Tn wAt mk sw [U22 - Y1 - N35 - V30] n pri.f r

Translation: a single road, behold, it … us, it comes out

Notes: waty - sole, single
pri - come out

34. tw aA nw kw ky mk sw r tw

Translation: at Taanach. Another

35. wAt mHtt n Df-ti pri.n r mHty mkti

Translation: road north to Djefti, we come out on the northern side of Megiddo

Notes: mhty - north, northern side, northern half, northern

36. ix wDa nb-ir-xt.n nxt Hr mn[xt] [n] ib.f im sn

Translation: May our mighty Lord of Action proceed as he wants (out of excellence to his heart)

Notes: ix - particle - may
wDa - go, set out, proceed
nb-ir-xt - Lord of Action
Hr mnxt - out of excellence (Vygus)

37. m rdi Sm.n Hr mTn p[f] StA -

Translation: Let us not proceed upon that difficult road.

Notes: m rdi Sm.n Hr mTn pf StA - See Gardiner §338 p.260
m rdi - let not
Sm - pass, to proceed, to go forth
StA - mysterious, secret, difficult

37. cont. aHa.n [inw]

Translation: Then were brought

Notes: aHa.n - aux vb introduces narrative past

38. wpwt [Hr] [xr pf mi.s] [bw smit] xr sxr [pf]

Translation: messages concerning that enemy ? …that idea

Notes: wpwt - messages
[xr pf mi.s] - ?
smit - charge, accusation
sxr - plan, idea, piece of advice

I find this line well nigh impossible. Lichtheimer and Breasted are not much help. It seems they did not have the hatched out sections to refer too.

39. Xr HAt Ddwt m Hm n stp sA lph [anx n ?]

Translation: they had said in the past. Sayings from the palace of His Majesty LPH

Notes: Xr HAt - (what was) prior, the past,the former state
Ddwt - sayings
stp sA - palace (arch noun per Vygus)

40. mrw.i Re - Re loves me,
Hsw.i tf imn - my father Amun favors me
Hwn fnD.i - my nose is rejuvenated

41. m anx wAs iw wDA Hm Hr mtn pf

Translation: with life and prosperity, my Majesty will set out upon this road

Notes: wDA - go, set out, proceed

42. aArwnA imi Sm nty ib.f im Tn Hr nA n(y)

Translation: of Aruna. Let him whose desire is to proceed therewith go upon the

Notes: imi - imperative of rdi - give, put, cause, let
Sm - pass, to proceed, to go forth
nty - rel adj - that, which, that which, who / the one who

43. mtn Dd.w.Tn im Sm tw nty ib.f

Translation: roads you have spoken of. Let him of you who desires

44. im Tn m Smswt Hm.i m di m nA n(y)

Translation: therefore come in the following of my majesty. Because they will say of those

Notes: Smswt - the following, suite
m di - because (there are perhaps other options here, especially if the pyramid in the hand is truly crossed out)
kA - to say
nA n(y) - pl. demons. - those, the

45. xrw bwt re in iw Hm.f wDA Hr

Translation: enemies detested by Re, “Has his majesty set out upon

Notes: bwt - detest, abominate, abomination
in iw - question particle

46. ky mTn iw.f Hr.tiwny (Hrw) r snDw n kA sn

Translation: another road, because of fear of us, they say.

Notes: Hrw r - possibly an abbreviated form of Hr.tiwny r meaning “because of” Faulkner p. 178
snDw - fear
.n - we, us, our

Comment: A number of difficult grammar examples involving imperatives, pronouns etc. The Breasted translation of this passage is quite clunky to my mind and not at all clear in some spots.

47. xft Hm.f iri it.k [imn nb nswt tAwy xnty ipt swt n ib.k

Translation: They said to his majesty, may your father Amun, Lord of the thrones of the Two Lands who presides over the Temple of Karnak (do) as you desire.

Notes: xft - “to” - a person of high rank or royalty. Following verbs of speech. Placement of "t" due to graphic transposition
xnty - who presides over
ipt swt - Brugsch gives a much fuller spelling

48. mk.n m Smsw Hm.k m bw nb wDA Hm.k

Translation: We are with the followers of your majesty in every place your majesty goes,

49. im wnn bAk m sA nb.f [wD Hm.f rdit]

Translation: as a servant is behind his master. His majesty, giving a command

Notes: wnn - to be
bAk - servant
m sA - behind, following after
wD - command, decree
rdit - infinitive - giving

50. m-Hr n mSa r Dr.f n[Hm] [ nxt] [Hr]

Translation: to (in front of) his entire army, that your mighty lord will guide your steps on

Notes: m-Hr - in front of
r Dr - whole, entire, all
nHm - save, deliver, preserve - (prospective)
nxt - strong, mighty, victorious
nmtt - steps

51. mTn [p]f nty wAt r H[ns] [mk Hm.f ir.n.f]

Translation: that road which will be narrow. His majesty made

Notes: wAt - road, path, way
Hns - narrow, constricted, narrowness

52. anx r Dd nn rdi.i p[ri] [mSa.i n nxt]

Translation: an oath in order to say, I will not permit my mighty army to go

Notes: r Dd = r + infinitive, expresses purpose - “in order to”

53. Hr HAt Hm.i st.Tn [ist rdi.n Hm.f m ib.f]

Translation: before me from this place. Now his majesty determined

Notes: Hr HAt - first, initially, before, at the head of
rdi m ib - determine, place in one’s heart, prompt

54. pri.f r HAt mSa.f Ds.f rdiw am [s nb]

Translation: that he would go ahead of his troops himself. Every man was informed (given to know)

Notes: Ds.f - reflexive pn - himself
rdiw - may be past tense passive voice
am - D36 - G17 - F10 - A2 = swallow, breathe in, absorb, know

55. m nmtt.f n(y)t Smt ssmt m sA ssmt iw [Hm.f]

Translation: of his steps of the route, horse following after horse. His majesty

56. m tp n mSa.f

Translation: was at the head of his troops

56 (cont). HAt-sp 23 tpy Smw 19 rswt m [anx]

Translation: Regnal year 23, first month of summer, day 19, awakening in life

57. m imAw lph (= anx(w) (w)DA(w) s(nbw)) r dmi n aArwnA wD[yt]

Translation: the king’s tent l.p.h. at the town of Aruna. Expedition

Notes: imAw - tent, hut
dmi - town, village
wDyt - campaign, expedition, journey

58. m xd in Hm.i Xr it [imn ra nb nswt tAw wpi.f wAt]

Translation: northward by my majesty under my father Amun-ra, lord of Thrones and the Two Lands, he opens the roads

Notes: m xd - northward
wpi - open, open up Vygus p. 393

NOTE: Shifts to first person. Lichtheim speculates that the original was a first person campaign diary, later formalized into a third person narrative.

59. r HAt.i ra Hr Axty Hr sn mnt ib n mSa nsw n nxt

Translation: before me. Re Horakhty before them, the mighty army of his majesty is content

Notes: ra HR Axty - Re Horakhty
mnt - be content, happy state of being

60. it [imn Hr sn] nxt xpS Hm.i … … G7 [Hr stp sA]

Translation: (my) father Amun on account of them makes strong the arm of my majesty. … palace

Notes: G7 can serve as determinative for Imn or nsw or as pronoun 1st person sing. .i “I” or with the chick .wi “me” see Gardiner p. 468
Both Breasted and Lichtheim omit this bit.

stp sA - palace

61. Hr Hm.i prt in [Hm.f] Xr HAt mSa.f ss[pd]

Translation: of my majesty. Coming out by his majesty before his army,

Notes: prt - Faulkner has this spelling as “ritual procession” but it is actually the infinitive of pri - to go or come out.
in - prep. by
Xr HAt - before, at the head of etc.
sspd - prepare, make ready, to supply - with m

62. m skw aSA n gmi.n.f xr xrw] waty []

Translation: making ready with (his) many troops, he did not meet with a single enemy, their

Notes: skw - troops, companies (Vy 1750)
aSA - many, numerous, (Vy 6920)
waty - single (Vy 1818)

63. dbw rsy m tAaAnAk [iw]

Translation: southern wing was in Taanach, their

Notes: db - wing of army
rsy - southern
Taanach - Breasted and Lichtheimer spelling

NOTE: Just before line 63, under the hatching is what appears to pA sn, just before line 64 the same appears, prefixed by iw. pA is actually an abbreviation of the possessive article pAy. This is a nisba that takes personal suffixes. Not all that common in ME, normal in LE. See Hoch §132. Took me a bit to figure this out!

64. db mHty m qaH mHty [rsy[sic] [n tA int qyn [aHa.n]

Translation: northern wing on the northern tract (side) of the valley of Qina (Kina). Then

Notes: rsy - in this sentence Lichtheimer says Sethe’s use of southern is “impossible” and should be “north” or the use of “Qina valley” should be questioned.

int - valley
Qina - Used Lichtheims spelling. Breasted uses Kina. I could not find a source to verify the hieroglyphic spelling of Qina.

65. Hm.f Hr nis rs Hr m nis r n Hr m [Tn pn]

Translation: his majesty called to them on this road

My translation is poor. Too many lacunae and very difficult to make out many of the cross-hatched sections!

66. nxtw iw sn xr sT xrw pf Xsy

Translation: …victory, they have fallen. That vile enemy

Notes: nxtw - victory
xr - vb. fall, as in battle
sT - particle, see Gardiner §119
xrw - enemy

67. ?

68. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] imn [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] r [ ]

69. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] w [di].Tn n

Translation: they. Give to

Notes: w - per Faulkner - they, them, their
di.Tn - imperative?

70. [f i?] [swAS Tn bAw] Hm.f Hr wr xpS.f r

Translation: him? Extol the might of his majesty because his arm is mightiest of

71. [nTrw nbw] [swt is.i nxt.f pHwy n(y)] mSa n(y) Hm.f m

Translation: any god’s. He protected the rearguard of his majesty’s army in

72. aArwnA ist pHwy n(y) mSa nxt n(y) Hm.f r [dmi] n(y)

Translation: Aruna. Now the rearguard of the victorious army of his majesty was in the vicinity of

Notes: dmi - vicinity

73. aArwnA pA HAt pri r tA int [qi]nA

Translation: Aruna. The vanguard had come out of this valley of Qina and

Notes: int - valley

74. pgA n(y) int

Translation: they had filled the mouth of the valley.

Notes: The last couple of lines are very difficult. I think I got most of it correct, but a few words did not make much sense.

74. pgA n(y) int

Translation: they had filled the mouth of the valley.

aHa.n xr Hm.f l.p.h.

Translation: Then they said to his majesty, l.p.h.

75. mk Hm.f pr(w) Hna mSa.f n(y) nxt tA

Translation: Look, his majesty has come out together with his troops of victory and they fill this

Notes: pr(w) - stative or pseudo-verbal construction

76. int imi sDm.n nb n nxt m pAy sp

Translation: valley. Let our victorious lord listen to us just this once,

Notes: imi - let - imperative Vygus p. 980

pAy sp - Vygus p. 627 gives “pA wa sp” as “just this once”. Faulkner uses “this once” and Lichtheim “this time”. I am assuming this is a variant spelling with similar meaning. Can’t read the Sethe note or the context of Bob’s translation.

77. imi sAw.n nb n pHwy n(y) mSa.f Hna rmTt.f

Translation: let our lord guard for us the rear of his army together with his people.

Notes: pHwy - rear

78. pri.n pHwy n(y) mSa r HA kA aHA.n r

Translation: The rear of the army comes out to ?, then we will fight against

Notes: HA -
kA - particle - then
aHA - fight
r - against - “r of opposition”

79. nn n(y) xAstyw kA tm.n rdit ib n [m sA(?)] pH n(y)

Translation: these desert dwellers, and then we will not be anxious about the rear of

Notes: nn n(y) - these
xAstyw - foreigners, desert dwellers
tm - neg aux vb - when use before the infinitive, means ‘the not doing of something” Hoch §178
m sA - in pursuit, after

80. pA n mSa smnt in Hm.f Hr bnrw snDm [ ? ]

Translation: our army. His majesty, stationed by himself outside and sat (?),

Notes: pA n - possessive prefix - of - Vygus p. 624
smn - to stand fast, to station oneself (t = infinitive)
in - by
bnrw - outside
snDm - to sit down, rest - variant spelling

81. im Hr sAw iit phWy n(y) mSa.f n nxt ist pH n(y) pA mAa? (mSa)

Translation: therefore guarding the rear of his victorious army. Now the end of the army

Notes: Hr sAw - this bit was difficult to track down.
Back to Gardiner: A47, “shepherd seated and wrapped in mantle holding a stick with appendage”. It is used here as an abbreviation for a number of words meaning to guard or protect. I could not discover what iti or iit means in this context.

Could it be that mAa is in error and the word is mSa? The various translations then make sense. Otherwise, I have absolutely no clue.

82. a iw wi? prt Hr m mTn pn iw pXr r.f

Translation: came out upon this road and

Notes: iw - to come, arrive, return

83. Swyt spr.n Hm.f r rsy Mkti Hr spt Xnw n(y) qynA
iw wnwt sfx(w)
(7) m pXr m ra
aHa.n wAH ihw im n Hm.f
rdi intw m Hr n mSa r Dr.f r Dd
grg.Tn sspd
r ntt r THn r aHA
Hna xrw pf Xsy m dwaw
Hr ntt [ ] [ ]

Translation: the shadow turned about. His majesty arrived south of Megiddo upon the bank of the brook of Qina as the seventh hour turned (of the day). Then a camp was laid down there for his majesty and a command was given to the entire army saying, “you prepare and make ready your weapons, in as much as One will engage with the enemy and will fight
together with that wretched foe in the morning because One … …”

Swyt - shadow - the shadow turned about. (It took several hours for all the troops to make it through the valley. Lovely poetic way to say it!)

spr - to arrive
rdi Hr n = give command to, intw = send
sspd - to prepare, to make ready
xaw - weapons
r ntt - in as much as - Vygus p. 117
r THn - engage (with enemy) - r of futurity used with infinitive
r aHA - fight, combat - r of futurity used with infinitive
Hr ntt - because, on account of the fact that (Hoch) - Late Egyptian pn = one

84. Htp m aany n(y) anx(w) (w)DA(w) s(nbw)
iri m Xrt srw
wHa aq n Smsw
sS rsw n(y) mSa
mn ib sp sn
rs tp sp sn
rswt m anx m imAw n(y) anx(w) (w)DA(w) s(nbw)

Translation: … rested in the camp of (his majesty) l.p.h.
The needs of the officials were provided and bread rations released to the guards.
The sentries of the army were posted and
they said, “Be firm, be firm
vigilance, vigilance”.
Awakening in life in the tent of (his majesty), l.p.h.

Notes: aany - camp - archaic according to Hoch
irt m - provided
Xrt - requirements, needs
srw - officials
wHa - release
aq - bread, loaves, bread ration
Smsw - followers, guards
sS - post (sentries)
rsw - the watch, guard (of sentries), vigilance
sp sn - intensifying particle - repeat twice
mn ib sp sn - steadfast, defiant, firm, be strong (twice)
rs sp sn - vigilance (twice)

84. [rswt m anx m imAw n(y) anx(w) (w)DA(w) s(nbw)] r Dd n Hm.f
mrw snb
iwayt rswt mHt r mitt

Translation: [Awakening in life in the tent of (his majesty), l.p.h.]
One came to say to his majesty,
“the coast is clear”
and likewise the battalions of the south and north.

Notes: mrw snb - “the coast is clear” - from Faulkner Dictionary p. 112, citing this line.
iwayt - troops, garrison, battalion - well nigh impossible to determine Sethe’s initial glyph, which is E9.
r mitt - likewise

The Battle of Megiddo

HAt-sp 23 tpy Smw 21 hrw n(y) Hb n(y) psDntyw r mty
xat nsw dwAyt
ist rdi m Hr n mSa r Dr.f r sS … … …

Translation: Regnal year 23, day 21 of the first month of summer, exactly the day of the festival of the new moon.
Appearance of the king at dawn.
Now a command was given to the entire army to spread out … … …

Notes: r mty - exactly
nsw is written first for honorific transposition.
Bound construction with xat - appearance

rdi m Hr - to command - Vygus p. 92
r Dr.f - entire, all, whole, limit
sS - pass, spread out - Vygus p. 1440, Faulkner uses “deploy”, Breasted uses “pass” which would not be quite the right word if you are positioning troops.

85. wDA Hm.f Hr wrryt n(y)t Dam
sab m Xkrw.f nw ra xt
mi Hr TmA nb irt xt
mi mnTw wAst
it.f imn Hr s nxt awy.f
pA db rswt n pA mSa n(y) Hm.f
r Dw rswt [ ] [ ] [ ] QinA
pA ab mHty r mHty imnty mkti
iw Hm.f m Hr ib sn
imn m sA Haw.f
(m) r-DAyw nxtw pHty [ ] [ ]

Translation: His majesty set out upon a chariot of electrum
equipped with his panoply of weapons of war,
like Horus, strong of arm, Lord of Action;
like Montu of Thebes,
his father Amun strengthening his arms.
The southern wing of his majesty’s army
was at a hill south [ ] [ ] [ ] of the Qina,
the northern flank was north west of Megiddo.
His majesty was in their center,
Amun protecting his body
from the time of battle and the strength [of Seth pervading]

Notes: wDA - go, set out, proceed
sab m - be equipped with weapons - Faulkner Dictionary p.214 citing this line
Xkrw - panoply (of accoutrements of war) - first glyph unclear, it’s J30!
ra xt - war, combat, battle
TmA - strong armed, strong of arm
nb irt xt - “Lord of Action”
db - wing of an army
Dw - mountain, hill
ab - flank
sA - protection
Haw - body, flesh, frame
nxtw - victory
pHty - physical strength, power, might
r-DAyw - melee, time of battle - Per Hoch p. 267.
Faulkner supposes an “m” before r-DAyw, see note “kk” p. 13. See Gardiner “Notes on the story of Sinuhe” p. 34 for a fuller explanation.


86. Haw.f
aHa.n sxm.n Hm.f r s Xr HAt mSa.f
mAA Hm.f Hr sxm r s
iw sn Hr ifd m gbgbyt r mkti
m Hrw n(y) snDw
xAa.n sn nw nbw Hr HD m tbtb m r dmi pn
ist xtm.n nA n(y) rmTw dmi pn Hr.s

Translation: his body.
Then His majesty prevailed over them before his army.
When they saw his majesty (was) prevailing over them,
they fled headlong to Megiddo
with faces of fear.
They had abandoned their horses and their chariots of gold and silver,
and they were being dragged and hauled up by their garments into this town
Now these people locked this town on them,
they [lowered]

Notes: Both Lichtheim and Faulkner supply “of Seth pervading” for the two hatched out words. I cannot make them out.
sxm - have power over, prevail
Xr HAt - before, preceding
mAA - see, look upon - perfect active participle (no gemination) expressing relative past time.
in - particle introducing the fronted pronoun “sn” to create a “participial statement”. A tricky bit! See Hoch §134.
ifd - flee, move quickly, rout
gbgbyt - headlong
xAa - cast off, abandon
itH - drag, draw, pull off - tw is passive affix
ist - particle = now
xtm - vb = to lock (doors, city gates)
nA n(y) - pl dem / def article = these

87 …[sn] Hbsw
r r Hry r dmi pn
ist HA n iri mSa n(y) Hm.f rdit
r HAq nA n(y) xt n(y) xrw
iw [sn] [Hr HAq] mkti m tA At

Translation: their garments
hauling them upwards into this town.
Now if only the troops of his majesty had not set their hearts
on plundering the things of the enemy,
they would have captured Megiddo at this moment.

Notes: HA - would that, O!, if only - non-enclitic particle
HAq - plunder, capture - used both ways in this sentence.
m tA At - “at this moment” Vygus p. 575

87. cont. ist pA xrw Xsy n(y) qdS
Hna xrw n(y) dmi pn
m xAs r saqt st r dmi sn
iw snD Hm.f [Hr] aq

Translation: Now they dragged up the vile enemy of Kadesh,
together with the wretched enemy of the town,
scrambling to bring them into their town.
Fear of his majesty entered

Notes: xAs - scramble? Vygus p.880 Faulkner has a note that the “m” preceding and the determinative indicate the infinitive of a verb of motion
saqt - vb s caus infinitive (t)= to cause, make to enter, to send in, to bring in

88. [m] [bdSw]
[aHa.n] sxm.n Axt.f
aHa.n HAq wrr(y) n(y)w nbw Hr HD
iri m is [HAq] sDr m sTsy
mi rmw m kaH Snw
mSa nxt n Hm.f Hr ip xt irw
ist HAq imAw n(y) [xrw pf] Xs
nty [bAk m

Translation: their bodies,
their arms becoming weak,
and then his diadem had power over them.
Their horses and chariots of gold upon silver were captured
and were easy prey.
Their troops were laying down and stretched out,
like fish in the fold of a net
as the victorious troops of his majesty were counting their things.
Now, capturing the tent of that vile enemy, which was wrought in

Notes: bdSw - become weak -“w” denotes passive
sxm - have power over, prevail over
Axt - diadem
HAq - plunder (goods), capture (towns), carry off (captives) catch (prey)
is HAq - easy prey
skw - troops, companies
sDr - to lie down, go to bed, spend the night (s caus)
sTsy - be stretched out, prostrate
kaH - bend or fold (of a fishing net) Hoch p. 290
Snw - net - The rather poorly drawn circular glyph is most likely W24, see Vygus p.1945
ip - vb. - to count, noun - accounting
xt - things
imAw - tent, hut
Xs - cowardly, vile
bAk - wrought in

89. [HD]
[next line completely lost] mSa r Dr.f Hr nhm
Hr rdit iAw n [imn [Hr nxt]
rdi.n.f n sA.f [m] [ra pn]
[ Hknw] n Hm.f
Hr sqA nxt(w).f

Translation: silver
[line lost]
Then the army in its entirety was rejoicing and
giving praises to Amun for the victory
he gave to his son on this day and
they gave praise to his majesty,
extolling his victory.

HD - Faulkner refers to the line “wrought in silver’ as a reconstruction by Sethe - see Gardiner §470 and Hoch §131. Used to introduce non-verbal sentences in narratives. Usually translated as “then” to indicate past.
r Dr.f - in its entirety
sqA - s-causative - praise, extol - infinitive after Hr.

89. cont. Hr m ms HAq in.n sn
m Drtw m sqr anxw
m ssmtw wrrytw n(y)t nbw Hr HD
m n[aa]

Translation: Then they brought the booty they had acquired,
consisting of hands, of living prisoners,
of horses, of chariots, of gold upon silver
of fine…

Notes: ms - bring, present, bring away booty
HAq - to seize
m - in this sentence the series of m’s are used in what Gardiner calls a preposition “of kind” best rendered as “consisting of” §162, 5
naa - the best definition of this word in this context is “fine, best quality,” an adjective. There is however no noun I can find. Lichtheim has “painted work”, Faulkner “fine linen” and Breasted omits.

The Siege of Megiddo

90. First line missing Hr wDt mdt n mSa.f m Dd (Tn) i[qr sp sn 2 mSa nsw] [n]xt(w)
mk rdi [xAswt nb m dmi pn xft wD Re m ra pn
r ntt sr nb n(y) xAswt nbt mHtt Stbw m Xnw.f
r ntt mH pw m dmi xA pw mH m m mkti

Translation: Then his majesty gave a decree on the matter, saying to his troops as follows,
Grasp (understand), you worthy, worthy and mighty soldiers of his majesty and
look, all foreign lands are given to this town as commanded by Re on this day.
Furthermore, every official of every north country is within it, to the effect that the capture of Megiddo is therein the capture of 1000 towns.

Notes: wDt - command, decree
mdt - affair, matter
m Dd - as saying, as follows, with the words, quote
mH - hold, seize, lay hold of, grasp (instructions) capture
dmi - town, village
r ntt - in as much as, furthermore, to the effect that
mHtt - north
xA - 1000

r ntt mH pw m dmi xA pw mH m m mkti - a bi-partite AB sentence and therefore the B “capture of Megiddo” is read before the A “capture of 1000 towns” see Hoch §129

90. cont. Sdi.Tn Dri sp sn
m[k] [ ] t

Translation: Secure firmly, secure firmly.

Notes: Sdi - to secure
Dri - firm

91. [missing]*
[ ] … [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [imy r] mnfAt
r Hnt
[r rdit rx s] nb st.f [dmi pn]
iH m Sdy
inH m xtw wAD n(y) nb bnr
ti Hm(.i).f Ds.f Hr xtm iAbty n(y) dmi p[n]
[iw.f rs]w

Translation: … Commanders of the Assault troops
to provide (for) their soldiers and
to let every man know his position.
They measured this town,
enclosing (it) with a ditch
and surrounding (it) with green lumber of all their sweet trees.
His majesty, himself, was on the fort east of this town
He was watching over

Notes: *The missing portion was most likely a statement to the effect that his majesty ordered or decreed that the Commanders provide…

imy r - Overseer, Commander, Keeper, Superintendent - noun-title
mnfAt - Trained Soldiers, Assault troops, Infantry, Soldiery - Vygus p.2218 - noun-title, hence the capitalization.
Hnt - (infinitive) provide, equip, command, govern, control (oneself)
iH - entrap, snare, enclose (town within ditch)
Sdy - ditch
inH - surround, enclose, to hem in
xtw - trees (tree, wood, lumber)
wAD - verdant, fresh

bnr - adj. - sweet, pleasant - this phrase may mean fruit trees, See Breasted p. 185 §433. It would make sense that the city, which was raised above the plain, would have planted trees and crops. It would have been particularly harsh to cut down all their fruit trees for lumber.

ti - enclitic particle, not translated see Gardiner §243
rsw Hr - watch over someone, look out for something - Faulkner p. 152

92. [Hr.f grH min]
line missing
[ ] …… [ ] [in]H m sbty n(y) wntt
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [m] wntt.f
ir.n.f mn-xpr-ra iH sTtyw tA
rdi rmTt r rsw Hr aany n(y) Hm.f
Ddw n sn
mn ib sp sn
rs tp [sp sn]

Translation: it, night and day
line missing
[ ] …… [ ] surrounded by a thick wall (an enclosure wall of thickness)
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] of its thickness.
It was created (named) Menkheperre-enclosing-the Asiatics.
People were appointed to the watch over the camp of his majesty and
it was said to them
be strong, be strong!
vigilance, vigilance!

Notes: inH - surround
sbty - rampart, enclosure wall
wntt - thick wall, thickness
Menkheperre - Thutmose III, prenomen
iH or aH - entrap, snare, enclose (town within ditch)
sTtyw tA - assuming that tA is the demonstrative pronoun “the” it should be placed before the noun sTtyw - Asiatics but is placed here in the middle of the word.
rsw - the watch, guard( of sentries), vigilance
aany - camp
mn ib - steadfast. defiant, steady, firm, be strong

92. cont. ist Hm.f

Translation: Now his majesty …

93. [ ] ……… [ ]
[n rdi pri] ?a im sn r bnrw Hr sbty pn
wpw Hr prt r abb r r n(y) anx(?) pr sn
r ntt ir.n nbt Hm.f
r xrw pf Xs Hna mSa.f Xs
smn m ra m rn.f
m rn n(y) nat
[m rn mSa] ? imy r m[nfAt]

Translation: None of them was therefore permitted to go outside this fortification
except for coming out to knock at the entrance of their fortification
Furthermore everything his majesty did to this town,
to that vile enemy (of Kadesh) together with his vile army
was recorded on a day by its (the day’s (Breasted)) name,
the name of the expedition,
by the name of the troops and ? the Overseer of the Militia (Infantry)

Notes: wpw Hr - except, except for
prt - come out
abb - knock
anx pr - all the translations have “fortification”
r ntt - furthermore, “to the effect that”
nat - expedition, troop movement
mn[fAt] - line is clumsy. The full title is imy r mnfAt - Overseer of the Militia (Infantry)

94. [nfAt]
line completely missing
[aSA str m sS Hr wD pn]
[ smn Hr art n(yw)t dHr m Hwt ntr n(yw)t imn
m ra pn

Translation: They set up the writing of this inscription and
it is inscribed on a roll of leather in the temple of Amun
on this day.

Notes: aSA - many, numerous
str -
smnt - (t=passive) to establish, make firm, to set up (an inscription)
art - roll
dHr - leather

The Surrender of Megiddo

94. cont. ist srw n(y)w xAst Tn ii Hr Xtw irw
r sn tA n bAw Hm.f
r dbH TAw r
n aAi xpS.f
n wr bAw [n(y)] [imn] [Hr] [xt.s]

Translation: Now the officials of this foreign land came on their bellies
to kiss the earth to the power of his majesty
to beg breath for their nostrils
because of his great power,
because of the greatness and strength of Amun over his foreign land and

Notes: xAst - foreign land but can also mean desert. If desert is meant, would it be derogatory in keeping with the line the “vile enemy of Kadesh? Just a thought.
bAw - power, strength
dbH - to beg
TAw - wind, air, breath
Srty - nostrils
aAi - great (of size)
xpS - power, force
wr - great

95. xAswt nbt
[s]t [srw nb ini] bAw Hm.f
Xr m HD nbw xsbD mfkAt
Hr fAi.t Ss it irp kA a[wt] n mSa n(y) Hm.f
wat qdw or watyw (see Notes) Xr inw m xntyt
ist Hm.f Hr dhn srw m mAwt n

Translation: all foreign lands.
………… foreign land
every official came to the power of his majesty,
carrying their gifts of silver, gold, lapis lazuli and turquoise,
bearing bags(?) of grain, wine, oxen and small cattle to the army of his majesty.
The captives among them carried the tributes on a southward voyage.
Then his majesty appointed the officials anew for

Notes: Xr - preposition - carrying, bringing
inw - gifts - 2nd sign is probably meant to be W24. Only spelling / word that makes sense.
xsbD - lapis lazuli
mfkAt - turquoise
awt - small cattle

wat qdw - this is problematic on several fronts. Breasted translates “wat “(graphic transposition) as “each” followed by word Kode or Kodians. He finds the identity of Kodians problematic as they were a coastal people. However, they are mentioned in Urk IV, 649, l. 23 spelled in the usual way, J28 - D46 - G43 - A13 - Z3. The context is that they were part of the consortium of tribes the “enemy of Kadesh” had assembled at Megiddo to fight the Egyptians.

I suggest that this is a garbled misreading of the word for captive “waty” - T21 - D36 - X1 - A13, see Vygus p. 1818. This makes more sense to me. Perhaps the captives were carrying the booty back to Egypt, “the southward voyage”. Lichtheim avoids the issue and translates it “one group among them.”

m mAwt - again, anew, afresh

96. [dmi nb]

The Spoils of War

[rxt kfa in.n mSa n Hm.f m dmi n(y)] mkti
Drt 83
ssmt 2041
mswt n(yw)t ssmt 191
ibr 6
rnp ? [ ] [ ] [ ]
wrrt bAk m nbw Dbw m nbw
n(y) xrw pf
wrrt nfrt bAk m nbw
n(y) sr n(y)

Translation: every town

(The Spoils of War)
List of booty brought by the troops to his majesty from the town of Megiddo:
Living prisoners, 340
Hands 83
Horses 2041
Offspring of horses 191
Stallions 6

A chariot, wrought with gold, (with) a “chariot pole” of gold
of that rebel enemy

A fine chariot, wrought with gold
of the Magistrate of

Notes: rxt - List.
mswt - offspring, young (of animals) Vygus p.437
bAk - wrought - this exact spelling not found
xrw - the use of A13, the bound captive, seems unusual, not in Faulkner or Vygus

97. [mkti]
[line missing]

wrrt n(y) mSa.f Xsy 892
dmD 924
Hsmn mss nfr n aHA n(y) xrw pf
Hsmn mss nfr n aHA n(y) sr n mk[ti]
[ ] [ ] mss n aHA n(y) mSa.f Xs
pDt 502
mrw wxA bAk m HD n imAw n(y) xrw pf 7

Translation: Megiddo
[line missing]
Chariots of his vile army 892
Grand total 924
Fine bronze mailshirt of that enemy
Fine bronze mailshirt of the Magistrate of Megiddo
… … mailshirts of his vile army 200
Bows 502
mrw wood tent poles worked with silver from the tent of that enemy 7

Notes: Hsmn - bronze - interesting that this and the next line begin with variant spellings of the word “bronze”

mss n aHA - mailshirt (chainmail) - Lichtheim gives “Leather” for the mailshirts preceeded by the two hatched sections. Breasted uses “armor” for “mss n aHA” and does not reconstruct the missing material in the hatched sections.

mrw - a type of wood - Vygus gives spelling as mrw, Breasted used mry
wxA - column, tent pole

The captured livestock

97. cont. ist iTi.n.mSa

Translation: Now the army

Notes: iTi - conquer, seize

98. [n(y) Hm.f mnmnt n(y) dmi pn]
line missing
[ ] [ ] [ ] 387
iHw 1929
awt nDst 2000
awt HDt 20,500

Translation: of his majesty had seized the cattle of this town
line missing
… … … 387
cattle 1929
goats 2000
sheep 20,500

Notes: mnmnt - herd, group of animals
iHw - cattle, oxen, herds - Lichtheim says cows, Breasted says large cattle.
There must have been a more specific meaning for these two words. the usage is similarly confusing to the various words for “horses” in line 96
awt nDst - Faulkner gives “small cattle i.e. sheep and goats” p.39, nDst - abbreviation for nDs, - small, little. Faulkner p. 145.

awt HDt - Woerterbuch gives Schafe - sheep, for this spelling.
It is unclear where HDt in the WB comes from. Sethe clearly uses V24 which transliterates wD. The sign in the WB may be V28A, a variant of V28 which does transliterate H.

More that was captured in the town of the Prince of Kadesh

rxt inyt Hr sA in nsw m xt pr n(y) xrw pf
n[t]y m (Y-nw-a-mw)* m (Yn-yw-g-sa)*
m (Hw-r-n-ka-rw)*
Hna xt n(y)t nA n(y) dmi rdi sT Hr mw.f
ini n

Translation: List of that carried off afterward by the king from the things of the house (Lichtheim and Breasted use “household goods”) of the enemy
of Yenoam, of Inuges (Lichtheim) or Nuges (Breasted)
of Herenkeru
together with the things of the towns giving now loyalty to him.
Brought to

Notes: * Transliteration from Breasted §436, p.187 I could not verify the hieroglyphic spellings for these city names from the sources I have at hand.
rxt - amount, number, register, list
inyt - bring, fetch, carry off, remove
Hr sA - after, following, afterwards, subsequently, hereafter
n[t]y - of

99. [bAw Hm.f]
line missing
[Hmtw xrw pf Hna srw nty Hna.f] 474
[mryn]w n(y) sn imy 38
ms(wt) xrw pf Hna srw nty Hna.f 87
mrynw n(y) sn imy 5
Hmw Hmtw xft 1796
Htpyw iriw prt n Hqr m di xrw pf s 103
dmD 2503

Hrw r aAt nbw ddtw
Hnw Sbn

Translation: the power of his majesty
line missing
The wives of that enemy together with those of the officials together with him 474
Maryan (Syrian charioteers) warriors belonging to them 38
The children of that enemy together with those of the officials together with him 87
Maryan (Syrian charioteers) warriors belonging to them 5
Male and female slaves as well as their children 1796
Non-combatants coming away from that foe because of hunger, men 103
Total 2503

As well as containers of gold, shallow bowls,
Vessels of various types.

Notes: bAw - glory, respect, authority, power, strength, fate
Sethe brackets the missing line together with the next line and says “Zussamen 474 personen” (together 474 people). There is no discernible source for the number. The plate from the Lepsius transcription is blank for this section. If I’m looking in the right place, Brugsch (p.1167-1168) gives substantial restored text before and after bAw Hm.f, but my German is limited and I can’t determine what source he used.
Hmw - male servants / slaves
Hmtw - female servants / slaves
xft - prep. as well as
Htpyw - non-combatants
m di - because of
iriw prt - I interpret this as iriw serving as an auxiliary verb per Hoch §171 followed by the infinitive prt. A difficult bit to decipher and rare in ME according to Hoch.
Hrw r - Apart from, besides, as well as
aAt - stone vessel, container - Det. H8 not very clearly drawn
ddt - dish, shallow bowl

100. line missing
ikn aA m bAkw n(y) xArw
Hnw Sbn n swr
rhdt aA
iri.n dbn 1784
nbw m sSw gmi Hr aa Hmww
Hna HD m sS aSA
966 qdt 1
HD twt m qmA

Translation: line missing
A great amphora with workmanship of Syria-Palestine
Shallow bowls
Vessels of various types for drinking
Large kettles
Knives 27
Making 1784 deben
Gold in disks found in the hands of craftsmen
together with silver in numerous disks
966 deben 1 kite
Silver statue, hammered out

Notes: ikn - jar, amphora
aA - great
bAkw - workmanship, design
xArw - Syria-Palestine
xntw - this transliteration is from Breasted. Working back from this, Vygus gives the word spelled with D19 “nose” in front and meaning bowl, dish. I cannot figure where this comes from! Sethe’s source must be in error.
rhdt - kettle, cauldron
dbn - an unit of weight used to weigh metal used a currency
sSw - disk of metal - Faulkner cites this example p.247
Hmww - Craftsman
aSA - numerous
qdt - kite = one tenth of a deben
twt - statue
qmA - to hammer out from metal - Breasted - “Silver statue in beaten work”

101. [ ] ……… [ ]
[ ] ……… [ ]
[ ] [twt n(y) xrw pf nty] im
tp m nbw
mAwt m Hrw pat
Abw hbny ssnDm bAk m nbw qni n(y) xrw pf 6
hdmw n(y) sn im 6
Abw ssnDm Htp aA 6
ssnDm bAk m nbw m aAt nb Hta m sxr n(y) krkr
n(y) xrw pf bAk m nbw r Aw.f
hbny bAk

Translation: statue of that foe together with
a head of gold;
shafts with faces of mankind (human) 3
ivory, ebony, costly ssnDm wood worked with gold as a sedan chair of that foe 6
footstools belonging to them 6
great offering tables of ivory and costly wood 6
*ssnDm wood, worked with gold and every costly stone as a bed on the design of a krkr couch
belonging to (of) that enemy; worked in gold in its entirety.
Ebony worked

Notes: mAwt - shaft of spear
pat - mankind (here without determinatives)
Abw - ivory
hbny - ebony
ssnDm - costly wood (tamarisk?)

Obs. - Vygus gives Tamarisk, although this is usually more of a shrub. In the mid-east it can grow to some size. Breasted gives carob which is larger tree, more prevalent in the region and a beautiful wood used for fine objects, even today.

qni / qny - “sedan chair” or palanquin - See Breasted p.188 note “j”
hdmw - footstool
aAt - “costly stone”
Hta - bed
sxr - plan, idea, piece of advice
krkr - couch, bed, sofa

Htp - altar, offering slab

*Note the following, a difficult phrase!
“One bed of ssnDm-wood worked with gold and all costly stones in the manner of a krkr” - Lichtheim
“a staff of carob wood, wrought with gold and all costly stones in the fashion of a scepter” - Breasted

r Aw.f - in its entirety

102. m nbw twt n(y) xrw pf n[t]y [i]m
tp.f m x[sbD]
[… … … … … … … …] [dmi] Dr n
Hnw n(y) Hsmn
Hbsw aSA n(y) xrw pf

Translation: with gold as a statue of that enemy with
a head of lapis lazuli
line mostly missing [town] ??
vessels of bronze
much clothing of that enemy.

Notes: Hsmn - bronze

The Harvest of Megiddo

102. cont. ist iri nA n(y) AHt m aHt
sip.n rwDw n(y)w pr nsw anx(w) (w)DA(w) s(nbw) (l.p.h.)
r awAty pA sn Smw
rxt Smw ini n Hm.f m aHt m mkti
swt HqAt
4 XAr 207,300 + [?]

Translation: Now these fields were made into farm lands, which were
assigned by the Administrators of the royal house l.p.h.,
this (to assure) the reaping of their harvest.
List of the harvest brought to his majesty from the farmlands of Megiddo:
grain (wheat) quadruple hekat sacks 207,300 + [?],

Notes: AHt - field, arable land
sip - inspect, examine, allot, assign - s causative verb. Both Breasted and Lichtheim interpret as a noun for “inspector”
rwD - Controller, Administrator, Guardian, Agent, Trustee
awAty - to reap - “t” should denote infinitive. Faulkner cites this example but ignores the “t”.
swt - wheat

quadruple hekat - For a full discussion of the measure of grain see Gardiner §266. Breasted’s total is different, see his p.189 note “a”, while Lichtheim’s is the same as Sethe.

103. Hrw r Sad m iTi in mSa n(y) Hm.f
next line(s) missing

Translation: apart from that cut and taken by the army of his majesty.
next line(s) missing

Notes: Hrw r - apart from
Sad - to cut
iTi - take, take possession of

Translation started April 20, 2014, completed March 11, 2015

Bibliography Index

Baker, Darrell, and Norman M. Jacobson. The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Oakville, CT: Bannerstone Press, 2008.

Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt : Volume II, The Eighteenth Dynasty. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1906.

Brugsch, Karl Heinrich. Thesaurus inscriptionum aegyptiacarum : Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1891.

Budge, Ernest A. W. Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary: With an Index of English Words, King List and Geographical List with Indexes, List of Hieroglyphic Characters : Coptic and Semitic Alphabets, Etc. London: John Murray, 1920.

Faulkner, Raymond O. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. Oxford: Printed for the Griffith Institute at the University Press by V. Ridler, 1962.

The Battle of Megiddo R. O. Faulkner in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Vol. 28, (Dec., 1942), pp. 2-15 Published by: Egypt Exploration Society

Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egyptian Grammar ; Being an introduction to the study of hieroglyphs. Sixth edition revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1957, (2007).

Hoch, James E. Middle Egyptian Grammar. Mississauga, Ont: Benben Publications, 1997.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume 2. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006.

Nelson, Harold H. The Battle of Megiddo. Chicago, 1921.

Sethe, Kurt Heinrich. Urkunden der 18. Dynastie : Dritter Band. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1907.

Vygus, Mark. Middle Egyptian Dictionary (

Mummified head of Thutmose III Description
There is some scholary disagreement as to whether or not this mummy was accurately identified as Thutmose III.

Rhio H. Barnhart

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